Pandemic influenza – Common questions
- How is pandemic influenza different from seasonal influenza?
- Is there a vaccine available for protection against pandemic influenza?
- What are antiviral drugs?
- How will pandemic influenza affect Alberta?
- Is Alberta ready for a pandemic?
- What should you do during a pandemic?
- How can individuals and families prepare for a pandemic?
- How can businesses prepare for a pandemic?
- Seasonal influenza happens on an annual basis during the cold half of the year throughout the world, typically causing local outbreaks of influenza A and B. Canadians are infected by these different strains at various times during their life.
- In North America, seasonal influenza usually affects people between November and April.
- Even though the virus may change slightly from year to year, most people will continue to have some protection against slightly changed viruses, particularly if they are immunized yearly for seasonal influenza.
- Pandemic influenza is a global epidemic that can happen at any time of the year. It typically occurs three to four times each century when a completely new strain of influenza type A virus emerges.
- People generally do not have any natural immunity, i.e. protection against a pandemic virus.
- If this new virus spreads easily from person to person, it could quickly travel around the world.
- Pandemic influenza differs from seasonal influenza in that everyone is at risk of infection with the new strain, larger numbers of people catch it, and more people may die.
- Current vaccines for seasonal influenza will not offer protection against pandemic influenza and need to be developed to target the specific virus.
- In the 20th century there were three pandemics: 1918–19, 1957–58 and 1968–69; and one in the 21st Century: 2009–2010.
- Read Pandemic History for more information.
Vaccines are the first line of defense against a pandemic, but it could take at least six months to produce the vaccine for a new virus. This complex process cannot begin until the pandemic begins and the new virus has been identified.
Canada is one of the few countries in the world prepared to have a vaccine manufacturer develop and supply a pandemic influenza vaccine as soon as a new strain is identified. The manufacturer will be able to produce enough vaccine for all Canadians.
Until a pandemic vaccine is available, the best way to prevent getting influenza is by:
- Cleaning your hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand santizer;
- Keeping your hands away from your eyes, nose and mouth; and
- Avoiding close contact (within two meters) with people who have influenza-like symptoms.
Once the vaccine is available, Alberta Health Services will implement the immunization program according to policy set by Alberta Health and Wellness and work in collaboration with municipal authorities to identify sites to provide pandemic influenza immunization to Albertans.
Antiviral drugs are medications used for early treatment of severe cases of influenza. It is not typically recommended for treatment of mild influenza unless individuals are part of a group identified at higher risk of severe infection. If taken shortly after getting sick (within 48 hours), they can reduce influenza symptoms, shorten the length of illness, reduce the serious complications of influenza and minimize the spread of disease.
- Antiviral drugs work by reducing the ability of the virus to reproduce but do not provide immunity against the virus. Antiviral drugs include oseltamivir (Tamilflu®) and zanamivir (Relenza®).
Alberta has a stockpile of antiviral drugs that will cover early treatment of approximately 17.5 per cent of Albertans, enough to provide treatment to roughly half of those who become ill and need medical attention in a moderate pandemic. Alberta Health Services will manage antiviral drug administration based on the nationally and provincially agreed upon strategy for the pandemic period.
Alberta Health Services will work with municipal authorities to identify possible sites, outside of hospitals, to care for the large number of people who may become ill with influenza and to provide antiviral drugs for early treatment.
The impact of pandemic influenza depends on the influenza strain, how easily it spreads, which groups of people are the most affected and how effectively we respond.
The estimated effect in Alberta for a moderate pandemic compared to a non-pandemic year is:
- Four times as many outpatient visits due to influenza;
- Four times as many hospitalizations due to influenza; and
- Eight times as many deaths due to influenza.
Public services such as schools could be affected. Employee absences could make it difficult for businesses or government to operate.
The effects of an influenza pandemic differ from a natural disaster because pandemic influenza affects all parts of the world. Countries and provinces may not be able to help each other as they do during natural disasters.
The Government of Alberta has been preparing the health system and the province for an influenza pandemic since 1999. The work is led by Alberta Health and Wellness and the Alberta Emergency Management Agency and involves a range of partners.
- Alberta’s Plan for Pandemic Influenza will be used in co-ordination with Alberta Health Services and the Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan for the Health Sector prepared by a partnership of federal, provincial and territorial governments.
The goal of Alberta’s plan is to reduce illness and death due to influenza and minimize disruptions to the daily life of Albertans. It is a work in progress, and is being updated and revised as the situation changes.
Be alert to information on radio, television, in newspapers, or the Internet and elsewhere.
- Information will be posted on the Alberta Health and Wellness website.
Alberta Health and Wellness and Alberta Health Services will advise you about the steps you can take to avoid disease, availability of vaccine and antiviral drugs, and any changes that may be made in health-care services to deal with the pandemic.
There are things you can do to control the spread of influenza and take care of yourself and your family – Read the influenza self-care information
Staying informed and understanding the potential challenges you may face in your community in the event of an influenza pandemic can help you to prepare for a variety of scenarios. Albertans can prepare for a pandemic influenza just like they would for other emergencies by preparing a basic emergency kit to be self-sufficient for 72 hours.
A pandemic may also affect businesses. Staff may be sick or may need to stay home to care for family members who are ill. Depending on the nature of services or products offered by the business, the demands for services and goods may increase dramatically placing additional pressure on businesses already coping with increased absenteeism due to the pandemic.
Alternatively, a business could suffer a negative economic impact due to the reduced number of customers. Businesses need to consider the impact of a pandemic on their staff and customers and make appropriate plans.
- Read the pandemic preparedness checklist for business
- Best Practice Guideline for Workplace Health and Safety during Pandemic Influenza
- Or call the Workplace Health and Safety centre at 780-415-8690, or toll-free in Alberta at 1-866-415-8690.